Peptide compounds to date are primarily administered via the parenteral route. In the case of chronic treatments, parenteral administration is not the preferred option. Alternative administration modes have been developed, but do all have their shortcomings, e.g., nasal sprays generally have a low and variable bioavailability.

Transdermal delivery of therapeutic peptides by npMNA technology opens the door for patient-friendly and pain-free administration, better patient compliance and -if required- sustained release profiles.